IU Health & Wellness
Research and insights from Indiana University
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Dec. 9, 2010
When to stop running. Runners who continue running when they are exhausted unknowingly change their running form, which could be related to an increased risk for injury. A study by Tracy Dierks, assistant professor of physical therapy at Indiana University, found that toward the end of a normal running session, runners generally displayed an increase in motion in their hips, knees and ankles. "Our study showed that at the end of a normal run, when they were getting tired, their mechanics were beginning to change," Dierks said. "When you notice fatigue, you're most likely putting yourself at increased risk for injuries if you continue because it's more difficult to control the motion ranges." Dierks said an excessive range of motion in the joints generally is associated with overuse injuries. The extra motion makes it harder for the muscles, tendons and ligaments to handle the strain forces related to running. Common overuse injuries in runners are patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome at the knee and plantar fasciitis at the foot. Dierks' study, "The effects of running in an exerted state on lower extremity kinematics and joint timing," was published in the November Journal of Biomechanics. Co-authors include Irene S. Davis, University of Delaware and the Drayer Physical Therapy Institute; and Joseph Hamill, University of Massachusetts.
About the study:
- The study involved 20 uninjured recreational runners ages 18-45. None wore orthotics and each ran at least 10 miles per week. The women and men were fitted with neutral running shoes and tracking markers were placed around their pelvises and along a single leg and foot on each runner. The runners ran on a treadmill until they either reached 85 percent of the subject's heart rate maximum or a score of 17 (out of 20) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE). By the end of their runs, all of the runners reported an RPE of at least 15 -- studies have shown that RPEs between 13-15 indicate fatigue. Dierks said the changes throughout the lower extremities were subtle but more severe in the rearfoot, where there was a "complete breakdown of mechanics."
Dierks said runners and scientists for years have pondered when runners should stop running in order to avoid injuries. Runners' RPEs could provide some answers, with RPEs of 15-17 indicating runners' have reached a point where their mechanics have likely begun to change in an undesirable way.
Dierks can be reached at 317-274-3147 and email@example.com. For a copy of the study, contact Tracy James at 812-855-0084 or firstname.lastname@example.org. The Department of Physical Therapy is in the School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. Top
Are you Auntie Moneybags? Are you That Sibling or relative who always spends a little more or includes something extra despite agreed upon spending limits? "Gift giving is an external sign of success or status," said Robert Billingham, a family studies expert in Indiana University's School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. "It's almost always a show-off statement, especially when they've already agreed on it. People will say, 'It's not a big deal, it's only $10 more,' or 'we had some extra money and we'd rather spend it on family,' but it comes across as, 'We had an agreement but you showed us.'" Billingham said it is easy for well-meaning people to fall into this trap even when they know better, but he said sticking to agreed-upon limits is the more thoughtful approach. He offers the following suggestions:
- Set your own limit on gift spending and make others aware of it.
- Suggest that people consider giving a family gift, such as DVDs, popcorn or games, that the whole family will enjoy, rather than individual gifts.
- Consider volunteering time to local organizations. "My family does this, and I encourage my students to, as well," Billingham said. "I want my kids to know that giving is what you do from your heart to help others -- it's not just about us."
- If children comment on how their relatives or friends receive more expensive gifts than they receive, use it as an opportunity to discuss money issues. "It's a good opportunity to teach kids that life isn't always fair," Billingham said. "They can be happy for their cousins or friends. In the long run, when kids are older and more mature, they pick up on the lessons that 'Kids get more than me sometimes but boo-hoo, I'll learn how to deal with it.' People have to deal with this throughout their lives."
Study examines effect of water-based and silicon-based lubricant. A new study by sexual health researchers at Indiana University found that women who used lubricant during sex reported significantly higher levels of satisfaction and pleasure. The study, involving 2,453 women, is the largest systematic study of this kind, despite the widespread commercial availability of lubricant and the gaps in knowledge concerning its role in alleviating pain or contributing to other health issues. "In spite of the widespread availability of lubricants in stores and on the Internet, it is striking how little research addresses basic questions of how personal lubricants contribute to the sexual experience," said Debby Herbenick, associate director of the Center for Sexual Health Promotion. "These data clearly show that use of the lubricants in our study was associated with higher ratings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction and low rates of genital symptoms." While these findings, reported in the November issue of the Journal of Sexual Medicine, involve the use of water-based and silicone-based lubricant, researchers also found that study participants reported fewer genital symptoms -- and, in particular, fewer reports of genital pain -- when they used a water-based lubricant. Michael Reece, director of the Center for Sexual Health Promotion and co-author of the study, said public health professionals have long recommended the use of lubricants as an important safer sex tool, particularly when used with latex condoms. "These findings help us to reinforce to sexually active individuals that not only are lubricants important to safer sex but that they also contribute to the overall quality of one's sexual experiences," he said.
Here are some of the findings:
- More than 70 percent of the time that lubricant was used for vaginal or anal intercourse, study participants indicated that they did so in order to make sex more pleasurable; more than 60 percent of women indicated this was the case during masturbation.
- More than one third of the time that lubricant was used for vaginal sex, anal sex or masturbation, women indicated that they used lubricant because it was fun to do so.
- Sizable proportions of women also indicated that they chose to use lubricant in order to reduce the risk of tearing, particularly for anal intercourse.
For the study, "Association of Lubricant Use with Women's Sexual Pleasure, Sexual Satisfaction, and Genital Symptoms: A Prospective Daily Diary Study," 2,453 women ages 18-68 participated in an Internet-based, double-blind assessment of the use of six lubricants during solo masturbation and partnered sexual activities. Women were randomly assigned to use one of six lubricants, four of which were water-based lubricants and two of which were silicone-based lubricants, during two weeks of a five-week study period. Analyses of more than 10,000 acts of penile-vaginal intercourse, and more than 3,000 masturbation experiences, showed that participants' ratings of sexual pleasure and sexual satisfaction were significantly higher when a water-based lubricant or silicone-based lubricant was used compared to sex without a lubricant. Far fewer penile-anal intercourse events occurred; however, ratings of sexual pleasure and satisfaction were significantly higher when water-based lubricant was used during anal intercourse as compared to sex without a lubricant. For all types of sex, genital symptoms were rarely reported and were generally less likely to occur when lubricant was used. More than half of the time that women used lubricant, they applied it to their own or their partner's genitals, or directly to their fingers and in about 10 percent of instances of vaginal intercourse, lubricant was applied directly to a sex toy. "These findings demonstrate how lubricant can be used during foreplay or sex play with a partner, and incorporated into a couple's sexual experience," Herbenick said.
The water-based lubricants were, in alphabetical order, Astroglide® (Biolm, Inc.), Just Like Me® (Pure Romance), K-Y Liquid® (Johnson & Johnson) and Sweet Seduction® (Pure Romance). The silicone-based lubricants were Pure Pleasure® (Pure Romance) and Wet Platinum® (Trigg Laboratories).
In addition to Reece and Herbenick, co-authors include Devon Hensel, assistant professor, IU School of Medicine; Stephanie Sanders, The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction and the Department of Gender Studies at IU; Dennis Fortenberry, professor of pediatrics, IU School of Medicine; and Kristen Jozkowski, doctoral student at the Center for Sexual Health Promotion. Pure Romance, which also distributes three of the six lubricants used in the study, provided in-kind support for the study.
To speak with the researchers, contact Tracy James, IU Office of University Communications, at 812-855-0084 and email@example.com. To speak with a representative of Pure Romance, contact Genine Fallon firstname.lastname@example.org. Top